Manhood Arising: The Changing Shape of the Men's Consciousness MovementStephen Rubin and Roger D. Carlson
Running head: MANHOOD ARISING
AbstractThe search for one's manhood is an ontological process documented by Freud, Adler, Erikson and Levinson. Historical events such as WWII, Korea, Civil Rights, Vietnam, feminism and two career families are both products and causes of intra psychic tensions. This paper will explore man's consciousness in the United States from 1945-90. Psychodynamics of castration and the search for power and identify will be raised as we pursue the question "Where is masculinity going in the 90's? Is America a warrior culture as Barbara Ehrenreich suggests? Are we, as Robert Bly asserts, "damaged"? Do our myths and archetypes possess great power as Jung and Campbell proposed? By using psychological and popular literature we hope to outline an understanding of our past and a vision of our future.
Manhood Arising: The Changing Shape of the Men's Consciousness Movement
"We are not going around looking for opportunities to prove our manhood."
"A man in America is a failed boy."
"Masculinity means knowing what one wants and doing what is necessary to achieve it."
-Carl G. JungIn "Totem and Taboo," written by Freud in 1912-13, it is asserted that the ontogeny of men requires the overthrowing of father or father surrogates i.e. laws, parental restrictions, even governments. Boys, to become men must deal with Mother Earth and with God. Freud goes on to say that "the beginnings of religion, morals, society, and art converge in the Oedipus complex. This is in complete agreement with the psychoanalytic finding that the same complex constitutes the nucleus of all neuroses . . ." (Gay, 1989, p. 510). Becoming a man therefore requires the identification with father and the eventual overthrow of him. The dangers of eternal immaturity, criminality, homosexuality, impotence, and neurosis inhabit the landscape of the developing male. Male identity is formed as the boy separates from his primary love object, mother, and identifies with the `wand of power'. This `tool' carrying male becomes the adult, genital personality at the close of puberty. Lack of assertiveness and homosexuality were considered to be incomplete development.
If `ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny' or whether we can `see the universe in a grain of sand' can we understand the individual by studying the species? Much has happened in the last two hundred years which has changed one's relationship to self and to others. There seems a bidirectional process by which humankind and history roll down the hill together.
If we superficially consider the last two centuries some of the major considerations must by the industrial age, the democratic process, and the pioneering expansion of civilization. The industrial age demanded that workers unite with machines and that both be considered as production costs. Workers came from families and farms, and there was an equivalence between horsepower and manpower. The mechanisms of production care little of religion, marital status, ethnic identity or with the invention of the electric light, night and day. Performance of a skill became the bottom line and one's identity was equivalent to one's job. If a machine-man wore out, replace it. In Shelley's "Frankenstein," Capek's 1923 play, "R.U.R.," where the term "Robot" was first used, and in Chaplin's "Modern Times" the psychological terror of the loss of humanity was the central theme. The demand to be treated as a person and not a thing is still an ongoing cry.
But if the industrial age depersonalized us it also separated us from our families. Instead of cottage industries and family farms and the tribe migrating together the individual now went away to bring home the bacon. We need to look no further than the bedroom communities of suburbs to see this daily pilgrimage. For the sake of the family I will leave the family!
This voyage or quest to make a living, to establish a home, to discover gold, or to find a northwest passage may well be reminiscent of the tribal youth who ventures into the jungle, or Jack who climbs the beanstalk, or the young soldier who goes off to war. It is a complex act which might be motivated by a fear of commitment (Barbara Ehrenreich's thesis, 1983) or a holy quest for manhood. As we will see later in the analyses by Bly the young man must go into the forest, leave mother and hearth if he is to encounter the "Wild Man."
And what are we to make of the explorers, the pioneers, the astronauts? Are they not on a quest? Do they seek their humanhood (mostly manhood)? Are they seeking their identity? While a woman can create a life, must a man climb a mountain, or sail around the world? But these explorers and sea captains leave their families and so their commitment is in question. Literature, news stories, sports, and television perhaps provide fatherless boys with examples of manhood. Dubbert (1979) reminds us that a 1912 Philadelphia newspaper stated that "God never made a grander man than Daniel Boone and in every public school in the land the story of his life should be made a regular part of children's study." Manhood myths of James Cook, Christopher Columbus, Buffalo Bill, Gary Cooper, John Wayne, Babe Ruth, or Johnny Unitas are offered up to children but where are the fathers? Perhaps the man who goes to a basic job for 40 years, mows the lawn, pays off the mortgage, and coaches Little League is not of heroic stature and is undeserving of praise and emulation.
Perhaps the democraticizing of the world over the last 200 years is too easy an analogy to the `primal horde' myth. In many countries, we have seen the children rise up and kill the father. These siblings tear down the trappings of monarchy and seek to distribute power amongst themselves but the outcomes, as Freud explains to us, are often the ascension to power of one of the offspring. The siblings never learn to trust one another or to really cooperate. Even in democracies, Machiavelli's first law of political conservation holds, "People in power tend to remain in power unless acted upon by an outside force." Is this rebellion an act of manhood initiation? Are elected officials, erected officials? Paul Federn (Ekstein, 1973) points out that the emperor/father was killed but was resurrected in the brother who became the totalitarian dictator. Unemployment and inflation led the insecure (men who could not provide) masses towards pied pipers who promised security. Mitscherlich speaks about the need for revolutionary changes which are necessary to restore both fathers and sons. Is this the damaged man that Bly directs his poetry at?
Sadly, the greatest proof of manhood remains war. Man, as warrior is still the milk which is fed our young boys and helps them grow. If the boy returns from the forest with blood on his hands, a six-point buck across his car hood, or medals from the Gulf War, then he is a man. There has been no shortage of opportunities over the last two centuries.
If we narrow our historical perspective to the last 100 years what do we see psychohistorically? The century begins with Freud asserting that within the Oedipal complex resides the seeds of neurosis. Male identity is formed as the boy separates from his mother, and identifies with his father and then becomes the adult, genital personality at the close of puberty. Lack of assertiveness and homosexuality are personality defects, or incomplete development.
The major issue at the turn of the century was whether or not personality was an inherited characteristic: The mythologists, such as Jung and Bly, seek explanations for the male personality in ancient stories. Irene Gad, writing in Quadrant (1986) uses the story of Hephaestus to explain how he is thrown from Olympus by Zeus even after being born lame when he tries to defend his mother, Hera. Gad points out that self-worth and self-confidence are not a priori components of personality but develop only if embraced in the primary love relationship with the mother. She quotes Eugene O'Neil:
"Man is born brokenHe lives by mendingAnd God's grace is the glue."
Gad goes on to state that at every stage of their lives--boyhood, adolescence, manhood, fatherhood--men reveal their dependence on and fear of, as well as hatred of, women. These feelings underlay all their images of masculinity.
Gad, like Federn, and perhaps all psychoanalytically inclined theorists see the masculine identity as being based on powerful instincts being controlled in a specific manner by his g roup or culture (Mitscherlich, 1973). If the power of the instinct is not integrated, the encounter with the unconscious will result in acting out of primitive, impulsive behavior--the negative wild man. The wild man is Bly's link between the modern psyche and the ancient spring of masculine energy (Salman, 1986). Bly distinguishes between the "wild man" and the "savage man," a distinction which may be missed by children watching John Wayne or Clint Eastwood movies. The "savage man" represents the realization of frustration endured by the male unable to completely develop his masculinity. The street tough, demonstrating random vandalism is in touch with masculine power without appropriate channels or models. As our society attempts to oversocialize its youth without activities or models the outcome is disastrous. Put in terms of contemporary educational/learning theory the child's spontaneity is punished without providing for alternatives which allow appropriate action.
World War I gave boys the opportunity to become men and providers the opportunity to become warriors. It forced Freud to reconsider his instinct theory and speak of Thanatos. But at this point theories of mankind and personality development were gender neutral. The economic hardships of the 1920's and 1930's damaged men's view of himself as provider. Perhaps only in the realm of industrializer, builder of factories, dammers of rivers, could his sense of power be realized but for many men these were difficult times. This insecurity may well have provided the fertile ground for Il Duce, Der Feuhrer, Stalin, and even a four-term President Roosevelt. Strong fathers were in demand. Joseph Pleck (Brod, 1987) highlights the work of Terman and Miles in 1936 as an early statement of healthy, normal sex role differentiation. Sex role appropriateness was much like having intelligence; a structural possession. Homosexuality was seen by Terman and Miles as an extreme end of the continuum of the "grade of deviates." Pleck points out that this view of `normal, innate sex role' was not fully accepted and wide-travelling cultural anthropologists showed the malleability and cultural variety of males. Margaret Mead's cultural relativism was of great interest, and Pleck feels that Terman and Miles view of universal, psychological sex role ideals prevailed.
World War II once again gave males a chance to "prove their balls" as well as to leave the home and child care to the women. Women now were needed as workers. Women became independent. At the close of the war, domesticate relations could not easily fall back into the male dominated household. There were more husbandless women, there were more women earning a living wage and there were more damaged, psychologically impaired men. Men would struggle through the next decade trying to assert their power; they would fight another distant war but not win (Korea), elect a father-general as president, and seek white-collar jobs by going back to college on the G.I. Bill. Were they `growing up absurd' as Paul Goodman said or were they `Beat' and `on the road'? The movies and television attacked the mild, hard working family man. James Dean in "Rebel Without a Cause" and Marlon Brando in "The Wild Ones" terrorized every day middle America. Television shows such as Ozzie Nelson, Danny Thomas, and Jackie Gleason made fun of the poor schlemiel father. Cartoons like Dagwood and Blondie laughed at ordinary masculinity and Elvis Presley displayed male sexuality on stage while Hugh Heffner publicized a Playboy morality. But the most important attitude change which was beginning was Civil Rights. Eventually this would move from blacks, to women, to homosexuals, and to children. As these groups gained respect and power, it is possible that men, at least as they had been, lost power. Would the siblings topple the leader, kill the father?
The 1960's were a time of change and challenge. Existentialism had perhaps matured into humanistic consciousness. The individual must accept his/her own power and responsibility. Personal growth was on the rise. In 1963 Betty Friedan, in "The Feminine Mystique" argued that one of the negative consequences of excluding women from full time employment is that the full time mother is too powerful in the lives of her sons and her overprotectiveness is responsible for the spread of homosexuality. The lack of male presence in the home was a pathogenic condition, but was homosexuality a sickness? No! In the early 60's the psychiatric profession de-pathologized homosexuality. So much for universal, healthy sex-roles.
The male population was forced to bifurcate into profeminist males and hyper-masculine males. Some men do eat quiche. In 1972, Money and Ehrhardt in "Man, Woman, Boy and Girl" (Pleck, 1987) differentiated gender identity from gender role. What you do is different from who you are. A man who has sex with another man or who is nurturing and sensitive can still be a man. Bem, Spence, and Helmreich, in 1972 introduced the concept of androgyny which further diminished the universal concept of manhood (Pleck, 1987). (We see by such movies as "Three Men and a Baby" that even in 1990 people find men as childcarers funny.)
The 1970's also saw the plight of the failed warrior. Once again, the United States had attempted to solve the problems of young males by exporting war. Sadly, Viet Nam as an initiation right-of-passage failed. The 60's had trumpeted the individual's right to question their fathers and to even refuse to go to war. The failed war in southeast Asia left many men confused. If white collar jobs were unmanly, if war was wrong, if the Playboy Philosophy was sexist, if married domesticated men were laughable if not pitiable, and if homosexuals could be healthy, what should a young boy do?
Michael Messner (in Brod, 1987) suggests that the athletic experience is a major part of the male identity. In his "The Limits of Masculinity" he utilizes Jung's view of the two halves of our lives and Levinson's process theory of The Season's of a Man's Life to discuss the importance of sports to men. He underlines what Levinson points out that life is a constant process of separation and attachment and that this is the truth for the athlete and perhaps for the fan. One is a member of a team and then is traded. Players die and players join a team. Sports provide the opportunity for work, sweat, dirt, pain, success, failure, and bonding. The last twenty years has seen a tremendous sports boom in both spectatoring and in middle and upper age participation. Nike is not merely a shoe company but a fountain of everlasting youth to the 50-year old marathoner with $100 sneakers.
Carrigan, Connell, and Lee (in Brod, 1987) say that men's urge to domination is a result of their assertion of a tenuous identity in the face of a continuing fear of the power of the mother, and their envy of women's reproductive capacity. This was a view also expressed by the late Abraham Maslow. One could also see mens' proneness to violence; juvenile delinquency, crime, rape, and warfare, as his need to express power in a world of safe sex, lack of jobs, poor wages, bicycle and motorcycle helmets and the quiet, female dominated, mandatory, classrooms. The question of masculinity arises just because human social situations transcend biological determination. The social, occupational world has changed greatly in the last century though biology evolves at a snail's pace. The only quick fix is war but this is a high price to pay for a one-dimensional warrior-masculinity.
Sociologists and poets have decreed that the American male is damaged. Ehrenreich (1983) points out that the what we mean by the `healthy male' has drastically changed. "The man who postpones marriage into middle age, who avoids women who are likely to become financially dependent, who is dedicated to his own pleasures, is likely to be found not suspiciously deviant, but healthy" (p. 12). She documents the change in opinions, the number of single men living alone, the delay in marriage to demonstrate the large scale structural shifts. Kimmel (p. 281, 1987) agrees and points to the change in the character of work, the closing of the frontier, and the rise of a visible women's movement impacting what we expect of males. In the 50's and 60's `falsies' were used to accentuate the curves and nurturing breasts of women but by the 80's and 90's `falsies' were used to show that women could shoulder their load and play football linebacker if necessary.
What begins as careful, documented sociological research blends into pop-psychology and the fascination of universal mythology. Joseph Campbell through books and television exposure captured the intellectual hunger of America. He (Campbell, 1988) attempted to explain movies such as Star Wars and fairy tales as universal truths. In an alluring way, he tickled our psychic funny bone by suggesting that we could discover great truths about ourselves in these stories. Certainly, we have the same difficulty with Campbell that we had with Freud, namely, "How do we prove any of this?" or to whom does it apply? Are we Icarus? What does the snake in the Garden of Eden represent? Are each of us Don Quixote? If we accept that there is an unconscious than must we accept an expert's (Freud, Jung, Campbell, Bly) view of symbolic meanings? Campbell discusses the male as a hero. Hans Solo (alone) in the "Star Wars" trilogy is a role model just as the "Lone Ranger" was. It's okay to have a buddy but not a wife. Campbell (p. 134, 1988) points out that all societies need heroes. It is interesting that David McClelland once suggested that the fairy tales we tell our children create the wars they fight twenty years later. The blend of literature, mythology, and sociology coupled with modern psychoanalysis both excites, mystifies, confuses and disgusts serious students of psychology.
Sherry Salmon (1986) speaks of the "Horned God" and Irene Gad (1986) uses "Haphaestus" as images of the unconscious male. Man (meaning male) the guardian, the healer, the shapeshifter, the God of tamed fire, and Protector of the hearth and family. Bly (1990) says that by the time a man is thirty-five he realizes that the images of man he received growing up do not work in life. He feels that this man with the hole in the center is ripe to new visions of what a man is or could be. Bly believes that we must seek to build the `Whole Man' or complete the `Golden Ball'. This seems to be a throw back to Carl Jung's view of the life process he called "individuation" (Jung, 1965). Yet Jung was seeing this need in patients, in their dreams, as well as in universal stories. If this vision of all men is based on Bly's self analysis is it more or less accurate than Freud's? In an intriguing chapter entitled, "The Hunger for the King in the Time of No Father" Bly discusses our need to kill our fathers and our need to see their `dark sides'. What are we to make of statements like "The father gives with his sperm a black overcoat around the soul, invisible in our black nights (p. 121, 1990)? Are all God's psychological depictions or projections our fathers? Do all of us seek to capture a homestead on Mount Olympus? The story of "Iron John" seems to be the story of manhood arising. In the explication of the Grimms' fairy tale Bly has attempted to explain to men how to achieve their manhood. He has tried, much as the psychoanalyst tries, to have men realize their unconscious power, both positive and negative, and has tried to demonstrate the need for mentors. He has done this not as a social scientist carefully proving his theory but as an evangelist making sweeping, profound declarations. The fact that Campbell and Bly have had best sellers and the fact that men's groups have grown in numbers perhaps speaks to inherent problems in male development and failures in the mental health-wellness movement. Perhaps as the profitable mental health movement has grown, practitioners have left to the soothsayers the vast ready audience of damaged men. Men's groups, like the growth groups of the 60's are easier to join than group therapy. Perhaps poets have a readier following than scientists.
In seeking the "whole man," we may need to accept once again the archetypes or the complicated pieces of our psychological makeup. Felipe Garcia, in "Women & Therapy" (1986) says that the time has come to foster a new masculine-feminine consciousness which respects and appreciates male energy and maleness as it has begun to respect femaleness. Are these concepts scientific, literary, or does it matter? Has the cautious, analytical methodology of the last fifty years lost the respect of the public and failed to tackle the meaningful problem of male consciousness?
Robert Bly (1990), using the Grimm Brother's story of "Iron John" allegorically depicts the epigenesis of modern manhood in terms of the discovery of a boy's lost gifts (gold) or potential as a human being, only to find that the realization of one's potential is attained at a price... that of entering into the deep, dark, mysterious world of the masculine and in so doing confronting one's parents. After a period of retreat and exploration of sources of grief and shame, the young man returns to a life of simplicity. During this period, opportunity knocks and the young man, with the help of the "wild man" saves the king's dominion and wins the admiration of the king and the hand of the princess.
Bly's approach to understanding manhood follows an inward journey. He assumes that something in the contemporary male has been lost and needs to be regained. Part of what has been lost is the spontaneity and innocence of childhood written about by Rousseau. The individual's childlike qualities are being driven inward by having to cope with the modern family (absent, job-oriented parents) and the demands of our complex, industrialized society. Another loss is that of the child's gifts--the potentials that the child has at birth that are ignored and are not nurtured. Another part of the loss is that of male spontaneity, be it instinctive, archetypal, or hormone-driven. This may be brought about by the omission of a role model. All three losses are related to the urgency that our society has to precociously mature children. Whether we call in oversocialization or the need to control this process makes us discontent with civilization and has been a major hypothesis concerning neurosis for a long time.
As a result of these losses what remains is a man in arrested development. A hardened cynic, shored up with the trappings of masculinity (embittered, savage machismo) while lacking the best of male qualities such as responsibility, forthrightness, decisiveness, knowledge, caring, nurturing, sensitivity to self and others, and authenticity. Certainly this is a value-laden view of the optimal male but those are the characteristics that can make for a man who is capable of diverse and appropriate displays of behavior (shades of androgyny!) rather than stuck in an immature machismo.
Bly's prescription involves several kinds of retreats. (Perhaps like an infant we must take one step back then two steps ahead.) One retreat requires men to explore the heritage and legacy of manhood. This is usually done in a group with a mentor. The process of oversocialization is explored to discover the freezing of feeling. Retreat is also made to the `simple' where competence and mastery is made of everyday events such as gardening and accomplishment is not measured by success in the abstract, complex post-industrial world. Only when this mastery of the simple is aided by another male mentor can the best qualities of manhood be used to rectify the wounds of the world and help men reach full manhood.
This retreat inward is in sharp contrast to the direction we point our children. Like birds leaving the nest we say to our boys, "go out to the world and prove yourself." Modern psychology believes that models are necessary for social learning. Carl Jung saw the second half of life to be a journey inward and it is in this direction Bly and the current men's movement focuses our attention. Freud saw the sex role developing from the interaction with parents while Jung saw the whole personality as a realization of inherited, internal archetypes (Murphy, 1988). Because of the non-presence of adequate fathers, men suffer from incomplete development. This is the common scar of manhood and it is this badge, usually flaunted, which needs exploration. Ironically, the culture traditionally frowns upon men exploring hurt, instead it is to be endured silently by men.
Boys, to become men, must have three experiences according to Bly (Estes, 1991). They must be nourished by an unconditionally loving mother. They must learn from the earth and nature. And after these two steps are completed, then and only then, will they listen to the wisdom of the elders. Kaufman and Timmers (1985-86) use Bly's ideas as the basis of a men's group that provides an initiation rite for entrance into manhood. They feel that a men's group can assist men, even middle age men, to discover and connect with their basic male energy, "the hairy man."
Another common theme is the issue of androgyny. The development of the savage male has sometimes been attributable to the acquisition of the feminine. On the surface, Bly seems to suggest that what is needed is more of the masculine; a "wild" masculinity not a "savage" masculinity. The former he aligns with instinct and masculine archetypes: king, warrior, lover, magician. Simply imposing femininity on the savage creates an awkward and incomplete, unsatisfying solution. He feels that true androgyny only will occur when one goes inside the scar to the source of the wound. There the male will discover what is lost: innocence, one's gifts, and manhood.
So what are we to make of this phallic prophet, Robert Bly? What is the significance of this men's movement?
To speak of men in a general, universal way is either to speak of a bio/psycho/genetic maleness or to gloss over all the cultural differences or differences in men's lives. While broad statements may be true for some men they will be false for others.
When and how do we complete the male development? Is a mentor a necessary condition? Must we all deal with the pain of a lost father? How can we best resolve our conflicts with our mothers? These issues seem to be psycho-cultural or psychohistorical not idiographic. These issues make us attend to sociological analyses and basic demographic changes which may have significance for the neuroses and unhappiness of the twenty-first century. They involve in the search for wellness not the cure of sickness.
Bly has surrounded the stressors of the 40's, 50's, and 60's by prescribing an introspective man--a man caught up in a human condition that is not unlike that circumstance of womanhood. Both men and women can be ascribed with a history of lost sexuality and gender, lost innocence, unredeemed gifts, isolation, loneliness, competition, shame, and prescribed a remedy of retreat, discovery and acknowledgment of history. Interestingly the result is less of a man's man or woman's woman. Androgyny, and openness of sexuality and gender seems to have been the watchtower of the 70's. Now, in the complexities of our post 70's technical society, the need for androgyny is the only way where men and women can join in a cooperative effort in the work place while retaining in the balance a whole bodied sensuality as well.
Manhood is changing but is it arising? If we don't marry, don't have kids, don't climb the mountain, don't have a mentor, don't cover ourselves with ashes, or confront our "wild man" can we ever hope to become whole? Is men's tendency towards ecological destruction or warfare ultimately related to his sense of masculinity? According to Sam Keen (1991) "to solve the riddle of war we will have to change our definitions of gender, our deep inner feelings of what it means to be manly or womanly" (p. 115). Keen feels that we have become trapped in our extroversion and that we seek answers in our constructions and erections. He ends "Fire in the Belly" with a call for an inner journey to balance our outer actions.
Social scientists can assist the men's movement by seeking to critically evaluate it. Which men are damaged? What steps are necessary for the development of wholeness? What is health? Though difficult, the methodology of psychology can help us learn about men and perhaps separate the wheat from the chaff. Let us not retreat to myths to learn truth but rather utilize myths to seek truth.
Bly, R. (1990). Iron John: A Book About Men. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Brod, H. (1987) (Ed.). The Making of Masculinities. The New Men's Studies. Boston: Allen and Unwin.
Campbell, J. (1988). The Power of Myth, with Bill Moyers. New York: Doubleday.
Carrigan, T., Connell, B., and Lee, J. (1987). Toward a New Sociology of Masculinity. In H. Brod (Ed.), The Making of Masculinities. The New Men's Studies. (pp. 63-100). Boston: Allen and Unwin.
Dubbert, J.L. (1979). A Man's Place: Masculinity in Transition. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Ekstein, R. (1973) introduction. In Mitscherlich, A. Society Without Father. New York: Jason Aronson, Inc.
Ehrenreich, B. (1983). The Hearts of Men: American Dreams and the Flight From Commitment. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books.
Estes, C.P. (1991, January/February). The Wild Man in the Black Coat Turns! The Bloomsbury Review.
Friedan, B. (1963). The Feminine Mystique. New York: Norton.
Gad, I. (1986). Haphaestus: Model of New Age Masculinity. Quadrant, 2, 27-48.
Garcia, F.N. (1985-86). Supporting a Masculine-feminine Consciousness. Women and Therapy, 4, 2-8.
Gay, P. (Ed.) (1989). The Freud Reader. New York: W.W. Norton.
Jung, C.G. (1965). Memories, Dreams, Reflections. New York: Vintage.
Jung, C.G. (1982). Aspects of the Feminine. New York: Bollingen.
Kaufman, J. and Timmers, R.E. (1985-86). Searching for the Hairy Man. Women and Therapy, 4, 45-57.
Keen, S. (1991). Fire in the Belly: On Being a Man. New York: Bantam Books.
Messner, M. (1987). The Meaning of Success: the Athletic Experience and the Development of Male Identity. In H. Brod (Ed.), The Making of Masculinities. The New Men's Studies. (pp. 193-210). Boston: Allen and Unwin.
Murphy, J.M. (1988). Sex and Gender of God, Christ, and Humankind. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 4, 27-37.
Pleck, J. (1987). The Theory of Male Sex-role Identity: Its Rise and Fall, 1936 to the Present. In H. Bord (Ed.), The Making of Masculinities. The New Men's Studies. (pp. 21-38). Boston: Allen and Unwin.
Salman, S.L. (1986). The Horned God: Masculine Dynamics of Power and Soul. Quadrant, 2, 6-26.